Extensive pilot research of about hundred artificial and natural central European ponds has revealed 447 taxa of aquatic invertebrates from 14 groups and 127 macrophyte species. This data set was subsequently enriched by data from several hundred of other small waterbodies. Altogether, we recorded 17 species new to Slovakia (8 – Heteroptera, 9 – Diptera), rediscovered 2 plant species previously considered to be extinct in the area and described one new plant community. We have shown that community composition and diversity patterns of studied groups are driven by different complex of environmental factors which depends on considered spatial scale. We obtained detailed information on ecology of aquatic plants and invertebrates and estimated ecological thresholds of species richness. We found that not management of buffer strips along pond banks but management of the whole basins is the only effective way to protect biodiversity of ponds. Considering surrogate potential of studied groups, diversity of submersed macrophytes appears as a best predictor of total pond biodiversity, however predictive performance of the model was relatively low. If we want to answer the question stated in the project title (Biodiversity of small water biotopes: parallel, intersecting or skew?) we should say that biodiversity of studied groups shows intersecting or even skew patterns. We can conclude that using of surrogate group approach in central European ponds is not effective.